Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University

Introduction

We Prepare, Challenge and Inspire Our Students to Make a Difference in the World

To the students, alumni, faculty and staff of the Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University, the law is not just something to be studied — it is to be lived. It informs our careers, our lives and our interactions with fellow citizens. It is the means by which we make an impact in the world.

Courts, law firms and employers recognize the significance of a Juris Doctor (J.D.) from Hofstra Law, or a degree from our joint J.D./M.B.A. and J.D./M.P.H. programs, because they know our graduates are renowned for their legal knowledge, preparedness and poise.

Our curriculum evolves every year to address changes in the law and practice, as when we recently became one of the first law schools in the country to institute a required first-year course in transnational law. Our students have long been involved in clinics, fellowships, externships and pro bono opportunities that give them real attorney experience — practicing alongside veteran lawyers — before they’ve graduated. After embarking on their career of choice, lawyers still come to Hofstra Law to further their development with programs such as the Master of Laws (LL.M.) in American Legal Studies or Family Law.

Hofstra Law is home to approximately 850 students, an alumni base of more than 11,000 members, 51 administrators and a distinguished full-time faculty of 46 full-time professors, 6 visiting professors and nearly 60 adjunct professors, including many scholars recognized as national and international experts in their field.

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law is part of Hofstra University and is fully accredited by the Council of the Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Association.

Mission & History

The mission of the Maurice A. Deane School of Law is to prepare, challenge and inspire our students to make a difference in the world while we advance important ideas through the legal academy, the profession and society — making an impact of our own.

Since 1970, we have provided a comprehensive, contemporary law education to our students, helping them become skilled, informed and ethical attorneys. We have a history of making meaningful contributions to the local and national dialogues about pressing social issues. We insist on creating a place where students, faculty, judges, lawyers, scholars and professionals from a variety of disciplines can come together to broaden everyone’s perspectives and advance justice for all.

Since our inception, we have believed in the value of an education steeped in legal theory and practical experience. We were one of the first schools in the country to adopt clinical education in our curriculum, and we have served for many years as the regional center for the National Institute for Trial Advocacy (NITA).

This school offers programs in:
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Programs

This school also offers:

LLM

LL.M. American Legal Studies

Campus Full time Part time 2 - 4 semesters September 2017 USA Hempstead + 1 more

The American Legal Studies program should appeal to foreign law graduates who are encouraged to obtain legal training in U.S. law and practice in order to compete more effectively with U.S. law firms operating in foreign countries. [+]

The American Legal Studies program should appeal to foreign law graduates who are encouraged to obtain legal training in U.S. law and practice in order to compete more effectively with U.S. law firms operating in foreign countries. The program helps to qualify a candidate for eligibility to sit for the New York State Bar Examination and to be admitted to practice law in New York. Foreign law graduates who seek U.S. law training in order to make themselves more attractive to U.S. law firms and corporations will also benefit from this degree program. The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University has a package of courses in American Litigation and Advocacy that are of particular interest to foreign law graduates who want comprehensive exposure to American approaches to litigation theory and techniques in a variety of lecture, simulation and practice settings. Hofstra Law is the Northeast region's base for the National Institute of Trial Advocacy, and the Hofstra faculty has extensive expertise in American litigation and advocacy. Degree Requirements The LL.M. program in American Legal Studies requires completion of 24 credits, which may be taken full time in one academic year or part time in two academic years. Full-time students must finish their LL.M. degree in two semesters and take 12 to 15 credits each semester. Part-time students must finish their LL.M. degree in four semesters at most, taking two to three courses each semester. To give our LL.M. candidates a foundation in American law, you are required to take a 2-credit course on the U.S. legal system and a graded Legal Writing and Research course. The goal of this course is to familiarize you with the structure of U.S. legal documents and teach you how to communicate effectively in the professional language used by American lawyers. LL.M. candidates must achieve a minimum cumulative grade-point average of 2.2 out of a possible 4.0 to receive the LL.M. degree. [-]

LL.M. Health Law and Policy

Online Full time Part time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Law and policy directly impact the multitrillion-dollar health care industry and the people it serves. [+]

Define the Future of Health Law and Policy Law and policy directly impact the multitrillion-dollar health care industry and the people it serves. Learn how to deliver expert legal counsel to clients confronting complex matters – from the Affordable Care Act and Medicare to insurance battles and biotechnology. If you’re planning to specialize your legal practice, no other area of law offers more opportunity. Graduate from our online LL.M. program in about 18 months. Command. Communicate. Innovate. Define the future of health law and policy. [-]

LL.M Family Law

Campus Full time Part time 1 - 3 years September 2017 USA Hempstead + 1 more

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University established the LL.M. Program in Family Law in response to contemporary family law practice's increased demand for specialization and need for an interdisciplinary focus for resolving family issues. [+]

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University established the LL.M. Program in Family Law in response to contemporary family law practice's increased demand for specialization and need for an interdisciplinary focus for resolving family issues. The only program of its kind in the eastern United States, and one of only three programs in the country, Hofstra Law's LL.M. Program in Family Law furthers Hofstra Law's commitment to developing skilled and compassionate family lawyers who have a thorough grounding in the issues central to the field - divorce, family violence, child custody, abuse, neglect, and support - as well as knowledge in related areas such as tax, contracts, real estate and partnership law, child psychology and treatment options. The program is organized in conjunction with The Center for Children, Families and the Law, an institute of the Maurice A. Deane Law School dedicated to education, community service and research to benefit children and families involved in the legal system. The Center's training program is one of the most comprehensive child and family curricula offered in the United States and its interdisciplinary approach is designed to better prepare a new generation of legal and mental health professionals to promote appropriate and effective justice in both the juvenile and family court systems. Students in the LL.M. Program are invited to attend monthly meetings and other special events offered in conjunction with the Center. Hofstra Law's LL.M. Program in Family Law meets the needs of all students, whether they seek to concentrate on matrimonial issues - marital dissolution, child custody, and property distribution; child protection issues - child abuse and neglect and the child welfare system; or one of the growing areas of subspecialty - international family law, legislative reform, or representation of gay and lesbian families. The program director ensures that each student's program is carefully shaped to that student's interests and background (including previous study of family law and practice experience). The program requires completion of 24 credits, which may be taken on a full-time (one year) or part-time (two years or three years) basis. To earn the degree, students must achieve a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of at least 3.0 out of a possible 4.0. [-]

Juris Doctor

2-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers

Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 USA Hempstead

We designed our 2-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers for highly qualified international applicants interested in obtaining a U.S. Juris Doctor and having the ability to take the New York State Bar exam. [+]

We designed our 2-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers for highly qualified international applicants interested in obtaining a U.S. Juris Doctor and having the ability to take the New York State Bar exam. Students in the 2-Year Program are admitted with advanced standing, receiving up to one year of elective credit for already earning a foreign law degree. Students have the opportunity to participate in: 5 STUDENT JOURNALS 10 CLINICS AND CLINICAL PRACTICUMS SUMMER EXTERNSHIPS MOOT COURT FELLOWSHIPS STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS Application Process Applying to the 2-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers is similar to applying to our traditional J.D. Program as an international student, except that Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) is not required. No application will be considered complete for submission to the Admissions Committee until the following materials have been received and processed: Completed Application Personal statement Required: Two letters of recommendation Register with the Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) Submit TOEFL or IELTS score via LSAC’s document assembly service It is not required that you take the LSAT to apply. Candidates for the 2-Year Program will be required to interview with the Dean of Admissions. This will give us an opportunity to learn more about the candidate’s desire to pursue the degree, and will give the candidate the opportunity to learn more about the program. Applicants should register online through LSAC and select the 2-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers on the application. THERE IS NO FEE TO APPLY. Applications will be accepted on a rolling basis [-]

Accelerated J.D. Program

Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 USA Hempstead

We designed our 2-Year Accelerated J.D. Program for seasoned professionals and highly qualified applicants seeking to enter the legal profession in less time than the traditional 3-year J.D. model. [+]

We designed our 2-Year Accelerated J.D. Program for seasoned professionals and highly qualified applicants seeking to enter the legal profession in less time than the traditional 3-year J.D. model. Students in the 2-Year Program take classes year-round in four sessions (summer, fall, winter, spring), while having the opportunity to participate in: 5 STUDENT JOURNALS 10 CLINICS AND CLINICAL PRACTICUMS SUMMER EXTERNSHIPS MOOT COURT FELLOWSHIPS STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS STUDY ABROAD Application Process Applying to the 2-Year Accelerated J.D. Program is similar to applying to our traditional J.D. Program. No application will be considered complete for submission to the Admissions Committee until the following materials have been received and processed: Completed Application Personal statement Required: Two letters of recommendation Register with the Law School Data Assembly Service (LSDAS) The Law School Admission Test (LSAT) Candidates for the 2-Year Program will be required to interview with the Dean of Admissions. This will give us an opportunity to learn more about the candidate’s desire to pursue the accelerated program, and will give the candidate the opportunity to learn more about the program. Applicants should register online through LSAC and select the 2-Year Accelerated J.D. Program on the application. THERE IS NO FEE TO APPLY. Applications will be accepted on a rolling basis [-]

J.D.

Campus Full time Part time 4 - 5 years September 2017 USA Hempstead + 1 more

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University prepares passionate students to have an impact in the legal community and beyond. [+]

The Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University prepares passionate students to have an impact in the legal community and beyond. Since 1970, Hofstra Law has provided an education rich in both the theory and skills needed to produce outstanding lawyers, business executives, and community leaders. Located on the 240-acre campus of Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, Hofstra Law is 20 miles outside New York City in suburban Long Island. Few, if any, law schools can match the combination of our green campus and easy access to New York City, the hub of the nation's legal profession. Hofstra Law is widely recognized as a pioneer in fully integrating clinical education into a traditional law school curriculum. By the late 1970s, the school had one of the largest clinical programs in the nation. Over the years, our clinics have become well known in legal circles in the metropolitan area. As students represent individuals facing real legal challenges, they gain valuable hands-on experience: they advocate in court, counsel clients, conduct fact investigations, and mediate disputes. Now, with the legal market demanding more skills-based training, we have developed new required skills modules to introduce second-year students to core lawyering skills essential to effective practice. With more than 200 upper-level courses, you can explore almost any area of law and choose a concentration in alternative dispute resolution, business law, criminal law and procedure, energy and environmental law, family law, health law, intellectual property law, or international law. Admissions Admission to the Maurice A. Deane School of Law’s J.D. program is competitive; for the fall of 2015, we received about 1,900 applications and our first-year-class size is 255 students. Our law students enjoy a 14:1 student-to-teacher ratio, can enroll in extensive research and writing courses, have access to a study abroad program and learn in strong practical, skills-based experiential learning programs. Full-Time and Part-Time Programs 
The J.D. program has full-time and part-time day programs; the admissions requirements are the same for both. The part-time program is for students who are unable to carry a full five-course load, but the part-time classes still meet five days a week so that law school can be completed in four years. Joint J.D./M.B.A. and J.D./M.P.H. Programs 
In addition to the traditional Juris Doctor program, Hofstra Law offers joint J.D./M.B.A. and J.D./M.P.H. programs. Your Career Distinguish Yourself Our Office of Career Services (OCS) is committed to helping you stand out. During our Professional Development Boot Camp, we bring in consultants — who work with many of the top law firms in the country — to hone your oral and written communication skills. Discover Your Passion The Discover Your Passion series brings a group of alumni who specialize in a particular area of law back to campus to serve as panelists and speak with you about their careers. OCS Services One-On-One Career Coaching Personal Branding and Marketing Resume and Cover Letter Preparation Interview Training Professional Development Training [-]

J.D. Concentration Alternative Dispute Resolution

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the ADR Concentration will receive instruction and training intended to expand their understanding of the role of the lawyer outside of the traditional adversarial litigation setting and expose them to lawyering skills essential to current legal practice. [+]

Students enrolled in the ADR Concentration will receive instruction and training intended to expand their understanding of the role of the lawyer outside of the traditional adversarial litigation setting and expose them to lawyering skills essential to current legal practice. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professor Baruch Bush will serve as the faculty concentration advisor for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a students concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a students enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semesters course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentrations requirements. A students concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Required Core Courses: Students must take the following course: Alternatives to Litigation (3)1 Required Skills Courses: Students must take at least one of the following courses: Legal Interviewing, Counseling, and Negotiation (3) Collaborative Law Seminar (2) Modern Divorce Advocacy (1) Mediation Principles and Practice (2)2 Securities Arbitration Clinic (6) (if not taken as a culminating experience) Mediation Clinic (6) (if not taken as a culminating experience) Elective Courses: Students must take at least three additional elective courses from the following list. Preferably, students will take at least one course from each of groups 1, 2 and 3 to meet their elective requirement. At the very least, students must choose 2 courses out of groups 1, 2 and 3. These two courses cannot be from the same group. The third required elective can be from any of the 4 groups. Group 1 Advanced Mediation Seminar (2-3) Mediation Principles and Practice (2)3 Group 2 Negotiation Seminar: Theory, Research and Practice (2) Collaborative Family Law Seminar (2) Legal Interviewing, Counseling, and Negotiation (3) Group 3 International Commercial Arbitration (3) Domestic Commercial Arbitration (2) Group 4 Family Law (with Skills Component) (4) Modern Divorce Advocacy (1) Any other course approved by the students concentration advisor, including an independent study or an ADR related externship. Representing Clients in Mediation (2)4 Methods of Int'l Comm. ADR (2)5 Culminating Experience: Students must take at least one of the following courses: Mediation Clinic (6) Securities Arbitration Clinic (6) Any externship that involves ADR practice and/or policy work. The externship must be certified by the advisor to qualify as a culminating experience. (3-4) Writing Requirement A student must complete a writing requirement that would satisfy either Writing Requirement I or II in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on an ADR subject or subjects, as approved by the students concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. [-]

J.D. Concentration Business Law Honors

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the Business Law Honors Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to the practice of transactional attorneys and/or corporate litigators, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. [+]

Students enrolled in the Business Law Honors Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to the practice of transactional attorneys and/or corporate litigators, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. Professors Miriam Albert, J. Scott Colesanti, and Ronald J. Colombo serve as faculty concentration advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration’s requirements. A student’s concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. As per the self-explanatory Concentration Enrollment Form, students in the Concentration are required to take three required core courses, one require skills course, and at least three qualifying elective courses. Students must also complete a writing requirement for the Concentration by taking a course (1) that would satisfy either Writing Requirement 1 or 2 in any course, or (2) via any Journal note or Independent Study, on a business law subject or subjects, as approved by the student’s concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement (such as Writing Requirement 1 or 2). Careers in business law are among the most challenging in the legal profession. Moreover, few career paths are as difficult and as competitive to successfully enter. For that reason, it would be unwise for most students to single-mindedly pursue a career in business law. 2 Any interested student should, by all means, take courses in the area of business law to ascertain interest, develop skills, and hone expertise – but the majority of students should also have in mind other career options, and should round out their legal education to position them well for such options. Enrolling in the Business Law Honors Concentration would not be fully consistent with such advice. For this reason, a minimum GPA of 3.3 is required in order to enroll in the Business Law Honors Concentration, and a student must graduate with a GPA of 3.3 in order to be certified as having completed the concentration. That said, a GPA of 3.3 or greater need not be maintained throughout a student’s time in the concentration; a student falling below this minimum will not be dismissed from the Concentration, he or she will simply not earn certification for completing the Concentration unless he or she ultimately graduates with a GPA of 3.3 or greater. The Concentration maintains a TWEN site, which is used for communication and programming. All concentration enrollees should sign up for the site (“Business Law Honors Concentration”). [-]

J.D. Concentration Corporate Compliance

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the Corporate Compliance Concentration will receive instruction and training to prepare them for practices that focus on or involve compliance work. Although the Concentration focuses on financial industry compliance, it encompasses other areas of compliance that are commonly encountered by corporate lawyers / lawyers representing corporate clients. [+]

Students enrolled in the Corporate Compliance Concentration will receive instruction and training to prepare them for practices that focus on or involve compliance work. Although the Concentration focuses on financial industry compliance, it encompasses other areas of compliance that are commonly encountered by corporate lawyers / lawyers representing corporate clients. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Juliana Campagna, J. Scott Colesanti, and Ronald J. Colombo serve as faculty concentration advisors for this Concentration. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration’s requirements. A student’s concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Required Core Courses (all must be taken): Business Organizations Administrative Law Required Skills Courses (at least one must be taken): Business Drafting Seminar The Business of Lawyering Community and Economic Development Clinic Real Time Lawyering: Negotiating the Complex Deal Transactional Lawyering Electives (Students must take at least one elective course from each of the following lists): List A [foundational industry courses] Corporate Finance Securities Regulation* Broker/Dealer Regulation* List B [advanced financial industry courses] The Regulation of Hedge Funds, Private Equity Funds and other Alternative Investment Vehicles* Introduction to Asset Management* Combatting Corruption List C [compliance-related courses outside of the financial industry] Global Compliance in the Digital Age Employment Law Biotechnology: Law, Business, and Regulation Comparative Health Care Regulation List D [other courses] Securities Arbitration Law & Role of In-House Counsel Federal Income Taxation of Individuals Introduction to Statutory and Regulatory Interpretation* Writing Requirement The student must complete a writing assignment on a subject relevant to the Concentration, as approved by his or her advisor, that would satisfy the requirements of Writing Requirement I or II. Culminating Experience Requirement Each student must complete a culminating experience in the area of compliance. Within the discretion of his or her Concentration Advisor, this could include: the Health Law & Policy Clinic; a relevant externship; a substantial relevant writing other than that which is being used to satisfy the writing requirement; relevant coursework beyond that which is being used to satisfy the other requirements of the Concentration; or some other relevant undertaking, whether credit-bearing or not. * “Wild Card” courses: the asterisked courses may be used to satisfy any List’s elective requirements, and not simply the List under which they are listed. No one course may be used, however, to satisfy the requirements of two Lists simultaneously. [-]

J.D. Concentration Criminal Law and Procedure

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the Criminal Law and Procedure Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subjects and skills that are fundamental to the real-world practice of criminal law. [+]

Students enrolled in the Criminal Law and Procedure Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subjects and skills that are fundamental to the real-world practice of criminal law. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Barbara S. Barron, Alafair S. Burke, Robin Charlow, Lawrence W. Kessler, and Fred Klein will serve as faculty concentration advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration’s requirements. A student’s concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Required Foundational Courses Depth of Knowledge Foundation Students must take all of the following courses: Criminal Law Evidence Criminal Procedure I: Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments Criminal Procedure II: Adjudication Skills Foundation It is strongly recommended that students gain the necessary foundation in trial skills by enrolling in Trial Techniques - Comprehensive Litigation Skills. However, students may establish the necessary skills foundation by completing three credits of trial (as opposed to other advocacy) skills in a criminal (as opposed to civil) law context. The credits used to satisfy the skills foundational requirement may not also be used to satisfy any of the additional concentration requirements below. Electives Students must also complete at least two of the following elective courses. Although it is suggested that students select at least one depth of knowledge course and at least one simulation-skills course, a student has discretion over which electives to select in consultation with his or her Faculty Concentration Advisor. Depth of Knowledge Courses: Comparative Criminal Law Crime and Communities Death Penalty Discretion at Sentencing: A Comparative Approach Domestic Violence Seminar Federal Criminal Law International Criminal Law Juvenile Justice Seminar Law and Psychiatry Mental Health Issues in Criminal Justice System Police Discretion: A Comparative Approach Race, Gender and Crime Scientific Evidence (*with Advisor’s approval) Sentencing Reform Seminar U.S. Exceptionalism in Criminal Punishment Wrongful Convictions Simulation/Skills Courses: Advanced Trial Advocacy Advanced Trial Practice: The Jury Domestic Violence Seminar (with Skills) Expert Witness – Homicide Human Trafficking Project New York Criminal Procedure Prosecutor's Role: Prosecuting a Criminal Case Youth Court Culminating Experience Requirement The final law school year should include a culminating experience that permits students to combine their study of theory, doctrine, and skills in the real world. To satisfy the requirement of a culminating experience for a Criminal Law and Procedure Concentration, students must complete either the Criminal Justice Clinic or the Clinical Prosecution Practicum. If, however, a student is unable because of enrollment limitations to participate in either the Criminal Justice Clinic or the Clinical Prosecution Practicum, the Faculty Concentration Advisor may permit the student to satisfy the Culminating Experience Requirement through completion of Prosecutor's Role: Prosecuting a Criminal Case, plus completion of Externship Program, Criminal Law, for a total of at least 6 credits, if the advisor concludes that the combination of the two will provide the student an equivalent depth and breadth of experience and level of attorney supervision as a clinic experience. A student relying on Prosecutor’s Role: Prosecuting a Criminal Case to partially fulfill the Culminating Experience Requirement cannot use that same course toward the completion of the Skills Foundation or Electives requirements above. Writing Requirement A student must complete a writing requirement that would satisfy either Writing Requirement I or II in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on a criminal law or procedure subject or subjects, as approved by the student’s concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. [-]

J.D. Concentration Energy and Environmental Law

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

In a world facing heightened environmental and economic challenges, energy and environmental law have taken on a renewed importance. Students enrolled in the Energy and Environmental Law Concentration (the Concentration) will receive instruction and training in subject areas fundamental to the practice of energy and environmental law and in specialized courses related to their individualized career goals. [+]

In a world facing heightened environmental and economic challenges, energy and environmental law have taken on a renewed importance. Students enrolled in the Energy and Environmental Law Concentration (the Concentration) will receive instruction and training in subject areas fundamental to the practice of energy and environmental law and in specialized courses related to their individualized career goals. The Concentration provides a robust framework to guide students seeking to acquire the substantive legal knowledge, skills, work experiences, and professional contacts important for embarking on a career in the energy and/or environmental field(s). Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors James Hickey and Katrina Kuh will serve as faculty concentration advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student's concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student's enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). Students interested in enrolling in the Concentration are strongly encouraged to take Environmental Law during their third semester of study (or fourth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration after the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students), but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester's course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration's requirements. A student's concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Informal tracks within the Concentration guide the student's choice of course work. Table 1 presents Required Core Courses and Electives by track. Students must take at least two Electives from Table 1 in addition to their Required Core Courses. One of the Electives must be a skills course. All students are further required to complete a culminating experience, either through an approved externship or clinic. Participation in an approved clinic may be used to satisfy both the skills requirement and the requirement for a culminating experience. The four informal tracks are described below: Regulatory Counselor track (federal, state regulatory agencies (e.g., US EPA, US PERC, NYSDEC), law firms, in-house counsel); Transactional Lawyer track (law firms with business and real estate transactional practices, in-house counsel); Policy and Advocacy track (government, not for profits, and political organizations); and, Litigation and Enforcement track (federal, state enforcement agencies (e.g., US DOJ, State Attorneys General), litigating public interest not for profits (e.g., Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Earth justice), law firms (Superfund cost recovery, toxic torts practices). These informal tracks are guides and are not mandatory. They are designed assist students in thinking about sequencing and selection of courses. Students will work with their faculty concentration advisor to craft an appropriate mix of course work. Writing Requirement A student must complete a writing requirement that would satisfy either Writing Requirement I or II in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on an energy or environmental law subject or subjects, as approved by the student's concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. Professional Development Requirement The Professional Development Requirement is intended to highlight opportunities for students to gain exposure to and/or experience in the energy and environmental fields outside of the classroom and insure that students take advantage of at least one such opportunity. To satisfy the Professional Development Requirement, students must: Participate as a student member of a local, state or national energy and/or environmental Bar committee; Participate in an environmental or energy moot court competition; Participate in the Environmental Law Society; or Engage in any other professional development activity of a similar type approved by the faculty concentration advisor. [-]

J.D. Concentration Family Law

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the Family Law Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to family law practice, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. [+]

Students enrolled in the Family Law Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to family law practice, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. The Concentration will take advantage of the law school’s robust family law curriculum, provide students interested in family law with a chance to receive intensive guidance on their course of study, and formally recognize students who decide to pursue specialized knowledge and skills in the field of family law. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Barbara S. Barron, Barbara Stark, J. Herbie DiFonzo, and Theo Liebmann will serve as Faculty Concentration Advisors for this concentration. Students must meet with their concentration faculty advisor prior to applying to the concentration in order to discuss their suitability for the concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline in their fourth semester of study. An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the concentration’s requirements. Content and Requirements Required Core Courses Students must take one of the following two courses: Family Law (3) Family Law (with Skills Component) (4) Required Skills Courses Students must take at least one of the following courses: Introduction to Child and Family Advocacy (2-3) Matrimonial Skills (2) Legal Decision Making for Children and Incompetent Adults (3) Nassau County District Attorney Youth Court Externship (3) Modern Divorce Advocacy (1) Matrimonial Law Externship (3) Mediation Externship (3) Elective Courses Students must take at least two additional elective courses from the following list: Children and the Law (2-3) LGBT Lawyering (2) Aging and the Law Seminar (2) International Family Law (2-3) Rights of LGBT Youth: A Comparative Approach (1) Special Education Law (2) Collaborative Family Law Seminar (2) Advanced Topics in Family Law (2) Alternatives to Litigation (2) Child Abuse and Neglect (2-3) Family Law Policy Seminar (2) Mediation Principles and Practice (2) Advanced Mediation Seminar (2-3) Any other course, such as an independent study or journal note that is approved by the student’s concentration advisor. Capstone/Clinical Courses Students must take at least one of the following Capstone/Clinical Courses: Youth Advocacy Clinic (6) Domestic Violence Seminar (with Skills) (4) Juvenile Justice Clinic Practicum (2) Writing Requirement At least one of the student’s Concentration courses must satisfy either the Writing Requirement I or Writing II requirement. The student’s Concentration Advisor must approve the paper topic. With the approval of the Concentration Advisor, student notes for the Family Court Review, or for other law reviews, may also be used to satisfy the requirement. The writing used to satisfy this requirement may be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. [-]

J.D. Concentration Health Law

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Health Law is now a complicated, heterogeneous domain of law. Practicing Health Law may call for special skills in corporate law, bioethics, family law, Internet and technology law, and tort law, as well as in other areas of law. [+]

Health Law is now a complicated, heterogeneous domain of law. Practicing Health Law may call for special skills in corporate law, bioethics, family law, Internet and technology law, and tort law, as well as in other areas of law. The Health Law concentration program thus recognizes that to prepare students for the careers in Health Law, they must have significant flexibility to design programs of study that allow them to take advantage of the Law School's broad curriculum, while offering the opportunity for greater specialization. Accordingly, students may select between a general Concentration in Health Law and more specialized programs of study in Health Law and Bioethics and Health Law: Institutional Structures and Financing. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Janet Dolgin, Jennifer Gundlach, Ashira Ostrow and Vern Walker serve as concentration faculty advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). At the initial meeting, students will select one track among the three offered (including the general Health Law track.) An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration's requirements. A student's concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Required Core Courses: Courses required of all students concentrating in Health Law: Health Law Bioethics and the Law or both Clinical Bioethics I and Clinical Bioethics II Special Problems Seminar: Health Law Advanced Courses: A student enrolled in the Health Law and Bioethics track must take at least two of the following courses: Constitutional Issues in Health Law Elder Law Law and Medicine Together Law and Psychiatry The Law of Medical Product Discovery, Development and Commercialization Law’s Response to Reproductive Technology Legal Decision Making for Children and Incompetent Adults v. Representing Health Care Providers Mental Health Issues in the Criminal Justice System Public Health Law, Policy and Ethics Sexuality and the Law A student enrolled in the Health Law: Institutional Structures and Financing track must take at least two of the following courses: Administrative Health Law Constitutional Issues in Health Law Elder Law The Law of Medical Product Discovery, Development and Commercialization Managed Care and the Evolution of the Doctor-Patient Relationship Medical Malpractice Medicare and Medicaid Law Negotiation and Alternative Dispute Resolution, An International Perspective Products Liability Public Health Law, Policy and Ethics Representing Health Care Providers Scientific Evidence A student enrolled in the general Health Law track must take at least two of the advanced courses listed above (selected in consultation with the student’s concentration faculty advisor). Each student concentrating in Health Law must take at least one additional course, to be selected in consultation with the student’s concentration faculty advisor. (This applies to students in the general track and to students in the specialized tracks.) Students must take at least 15 credits in the Concentration. Thus, some students will be required to take two (rather than one) additional courses. Skills Courses: Each student in the Health Law Concentration must take a course with an “experiential component.” This may be the Health Law and Policy Clinic, a Health Law demonstration project or a course that includes simulations (selected in consultation with the student’s advisor). In addition, enrollment in other clinics that now exist may fulfill the Concentration’s “experiential” requirement. Identification of relevant clinics will depend on a student’s individual program of study within the Concentration; relevant clinics will be selected in consultation with the student’s concentration faculty advisor. Writing Requirement A student must complete a significant writing project in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on a topic related to the Concentration, as approved by the student’s concentration faculty advisor. Normally, the writing project for this Concentration will be eligible for Writing Credit I. However, with the agreement of a student’s concentration faculty advisor, a writing project that fulfills Writing Credit II may fulfill the Concentration writing requirement. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. Minimum GPA A minimum GPA of 3.1 is required at the time of application for the Health Law Concentration. A GPA of 3.1 need not be maintained throughout a student’s time in the Concentration; however, a student must graduate with a GPA of 3.1 or higher in order to be awarded credit for the Concentration. [-]

J.D. Concentration Intellectual Property Law Honors

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

Students enrolled in the Intellectual Property Law Honors Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to the practice of intellectual property attorneys, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. [+]

Students enrolled in the Intellectual Property Law Honors Concentration will receive instruction and training in those subject areas fundamental to the practice of intellectual property attorneys, in addition to instruction in specialized, related subject areas of their choosing. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Akilah N. Folami, Leon Friedman, and Irina D. Manta serve as faculty concentration advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A Concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration at a later date, but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration’s requirements. A student’s concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Content and Requirements Required Core Courses: Students must take the Intellectual Property Survey course. In addition, they must take two of the following three courses: Copyright Patents Trademarks Students who take all three of these courses may waive the requirement to take the Intellectual Property Survey course if they wish to do so. Elective courses Students must also take a total of at least 3 elective courses from “List A” and “List B”. At least 1 of these courses must be taken from “List A,” below, and at least 1 must be one of the Capstone courses, which involve skills training and are marked with asterisks (the two requirements in this sentence may be fulfilled with the same course). List A Art Law Comparative Cyberlaw Entertainment Law Global Compliance in the Digital Age Intellectual Property Colloquium Law in Cyberspace Patent Litigation* Patent Practice* Patent Prosecution Externship* Privacy in the Digital Age Sports Law Telecommunications Law and Policy List B Administrative Law Antitrust Biotechnology: Law, Business, and Regulation Business Drafting Seminar* Discovery Skills II: Depositions* E-Discovery Practice* Evidence (Prof. Krieger only)* International Business Transactions International Commercial Arbitration* International Sales Law International Trade Law’s Response to Reproductive Technology Legal Interviewing, Counseling & Negotiation* Litigation and Drafting Skills* Mass Media and the First Amendment Pretrial Skills* Remedies* Scientific Evidence Transactional Lawyering* Additionally, any other course approved by the student’s concentration advisor, including Independent Study coursework, can be used to satisfy the third elective. Subject to a student’s concentration advisor approval, students can also use an IP-related externship not on this list to fulfill the Capstone part of the electives requirements. Writing Requirement A student must complete a writing requirement that would satisfy either Writing Requirement I or II in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on an intellectual property law subject or subjects, as approved by the student’s concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement to be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. Minimum GPA Careers in intellectual property law are challenging and can be competitive to successfully enter. For that reason, it would be unwise for most students to single-mindedly pursue a career in intellectual property law. Any interested student should, by all means, take courses in the area of intellectual property law to ascertain interest, develop skills, and hone expertise – but the majority of students should also have in mind other career options, and should round out their legal education to position them well for such options. Enrolling in the Intellectual Property Law Honors Concentration would not be fully consistent with such advice. For this reason, a minimum GPA of 3.1 is required at the time of application for the Intellectual Property Law Honors Concentration. Although a GPA of 3.1 or greater need not be maintained throughout a student’s time in the concentration, a student must graduate with a GPA of 3.1 or greater in order to be awarded credit for the concentration. The Concentration maintains a TWEN site, which is used for communication and programming. All concentration enrollees should sign up for the site (“Intellectual Property Law Honors Concentration”). [-]

J.D. Concentration International Law Honors

Campus Full time September 2017 USA Hempstead

In an increasingly globalized world, the study of international law subjects is increasingly vital to legal education and practice. The faculty has already recognized this reality by requiring Transnational Law in the first year. [+]

In an increasingly globalized world, the study of international law subjects is increasingly vital to legal education and practice. The faculty has already recognized this reality by requiring Transnational Law in the first year. Students enrolled in the International Law Honors Concentration (the Concentration) will receive additional instruction and training in subject areas fundamental to the development of a transnational legal practice and in specialized courses related to their individualized career goals. The Concentration provides a robust framework to guide students seeking to acquire the substantive legal knowledge, skills, work experiences, and professional contacts important for embarking on legal practice informed by international law subjects. Faculty Concentration Advisors and Advisement Professors Juli Campagna, Jay Hickey, Julian Ku and Barbara Stark will serve as faculty advisors for this Concentration. Concentration faculty advisors may modify the Concentration requirements in exceptional circumstances upon notice to the Dean. Guidance from a student’s concentration faculty advisor is an important element of successful completion of the Concentration. A concentration faculty advisor must approve a student’s enrollment in the Concentration. Students should meet with their advisor as soon as they find themselves interested in the Concentration, but in no event later than the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students). An advisor may permit a student to enroll in the Concentration after the course selection deadline for their fourth semester of study (or fifth semester of study for part-time students), but only after determining that the student can realistically meet the requirements of the Concentration prior to graduation. Once enrolled in the Concentration, students must meet with their faculty advisor at least once per semester, prior to that semester’s course selection deadline, in order to plan their course selection and review their progress in fulfilling the Concentration’s requirements. A student’s concentration faculty advisor must also review and approve the concentration writing requirement. Course Requirements Required Core Courses In addition to Transnational Law, a mandatory required course in the first year, students must take one of the following courses: International Law International Business Transactions Required Skills Courses Students must take at least one of the following courses: Political Asylum Clinic Global Externship Externship (with international focus, must be approved by advisor) Ecuador Field Study Cuba Field Study Immigration Field Study International Commercial Arbitration (with Skills Lab) Law of International Trade (with Skills Lab) International Sales Law with International Sales Law Skills Lab Elective Courses Students must take at least 3 additional elective courses from the list below. Additionally, any of the following mandatory core courses or skills courses not used to fulfill the mandatory or skills requirements may satisfy the elective requirement. Approved Elective Courses Export Laws and Export Controls Regulation of International Markets International Commercial Arbitration International Commercial Dispute Resolution International Transactions: Commercial Paper in a Paperless Age International Family Law Foreign Affairs and the U.S. Constitution Use of Force in International Law: From Peacekeeping to Terrorism National Security and the Law Immigration Law Advanced Immigration Law and Citizenship European Union Law Introduction to the Economic Law of the European Union Law of Humanity and Law of Nations Law of Human Rights Seminar Law of the Sea International Environmental Law Energy, the Environment, and the Global Economy Global Climate Change and U.S. Law Comparative Health Care Regulation Comparative Health Care Liability: Compensation for Medical Accidents Comparative Cyberlaw Additionally, any other course approved by the student’s concentration advisor, including Independent Study, can be used to satisfy the elective course requirement. Writing Requirement A student must complete a writing requirement that would satisfy either Writing Requirement I or II in any course, or via any Journal note or Independent Study, on an international law subject or subjects, as approved by the student’s concentration faculty advisor. It is permissible for the writing used to satisfy this requirement be the same writing used by the student to satisfy another Law School requirement. Professional Development Requirement The Professional Development Requirement is intended to highlight opportunities for students to gain exposure to and/or experience in the international law fields outside of the classroom and insure that students take advantage of at least one such opportunity. To satisfy the Professional Development Requirement, students must: Participate as a student member of a local, national, and/or international Bar committee; Participate in an international moot court competition; Participate in the International Law Society or Human Rights Law Society; or Engage in any other professional development activity of a similar type approved by the faculty concentration advisor. Minimum G.P.A. A minimum G.P.A. of 3.1 is required at the time of concentration. A G.P.A. of 3.1 need not be maintained throughout the student’s time in the Concentration. However a student must graduate with a 3.1 or higher in order to be awarded credit for the Concentration. [-]

JD/MBA Joint Program

Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Hempstead

The J.D./M.B.A. program is a joint degree program of the Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University and the Hofstra University Frank G. Zarb School of Business. The program is typically completed in four years, although students can complete the program in less time by taking summer session and/or winter intersession courses and by seeking credit for certain business courses taken as an undergraduate. [+]

The J.D./M.B.A. program is a joint degree program of the Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University and the Hofstra University Frank G. Zarb School of Business. The program is typically completed in four years, although students can complete the program in less time by taking summer session and/or winter intersession courses and by seeking credit for certain business courses taken as an undergraduate. The J.D./M.B.A. program provides students with: knowledge of the administrative process necessary for attorneys pursuing careers in business and not-for-profit institutions; specialized proficiency in fields auxiliary to law, such as accounting, banking, finance, investment, marketing, real estate and taxation; and knowledge of the economic implications of legal processes. Maurice A. Deane School of Law Requirements The program requirements for fulfillment of the law section of the curriculum are as follows: Completion of required first-year law courses, 30 credits Completion of required upper-level courses (Constitutional Law I & II, Professional Responsibility), 8 or 9 credits Completion of approved Business School credits, 9 credits Completion of additional law credits to total a minimum of 87 credits (including the 9 approved Business School credits) Completion of Writing Requirements 1 and 2 Completion of the Skills requirement The J.D./M.B.A. program is open to full-time law students. The Law School will grant up to a total of 9 Law School credits for courses required for all J.D./M.B.A. students. Students may receive academic credit toward the J.D. degree only for Business School courses approved by the faculty of the Law School. The Law School registrar maintains a list of such approved courses. Further, in order for the Business School credits to be accepted by the Law School toward the 87 required credit hours, (1) the student must receive at least a C+ in the course, and (2) the student must complete the J.D./M.B.A. curricula and receive the M.B.A. degree. No grades received in Business School courses will be counted in the student’s Law School GPA. Frank G. Zarb School of Business Requirements The program requirements for fulfillment of the business section of the curriculum are broken down into five different components: Component I: Residency Requirements, No credit Component II: Core Competencies, 2-6 credits Component III: Advanced Core, 24 credits Component IV: The Major Concentrations, 6 credits Component V: Capstone, 3 credits (Nine credits from the Law School will be transferred in consultation with the Executive Director of Graduate Business Programs Jeffrey D. Mon.) Due to the core competency courses in the Business School, students who have obtained undergraduate business degrees will have different plans of study than students who have not done so. Thus, students who must complete certain core competency courses in the Business School will incur additional tuition charges. The Business School will accept 9 credits of approved coursework from the J.D. program toward the M.B.A. degree. The Executive Director of Graduate Business Programs Jeffrey D. Mon maintains a list of such approved courses. Please note that students in the J.D./M.B.A. program are not permitted to take courses in the Honors/E.M.B.A. program and may not register for full-time day M.B.A. courses. Scheduling and Tuition The number of credits a J.D./M.B.A. program student will take in the Frank G. Zarb School of Business during the second, third and fourth years will depend on the student’s undergraduate major and whether any courses have been taken in the summer sessions or the winter intersession. In any semester in which a student will be registered for classes in both the Maurice A. Deane School of Law and the Business School, the student is required to meet with the faculty advisor, Professor Miriam Albert, and with Executive Director of Graduate Business Programs Jeffrey D. Mon. The maximum number of credits any Law School student may take in any semester is 17. Students in the J.D./M.B.A. program pay full-time Law School tuition for the first year and pay the then-current J.D./M.B.A. per credit rate for Law School classes and the M.B.A. per credit rate for Business School classes in the three years of combined study. If the student has received a scholarship from the Law School, he or she would receive the amount (e.g., $20,000) for the first year and then $40,000 (representing Law School years 2 and 3) pro rata over the next three years of combined study. Conferral of each degree is contingent on conferral of the other, and the J.D. and M.B.A. degrees will not be awarded until all course requirements are satisfied under both programs. Students will not be bar-certified until both degrees have been conferred. Students must complete the J.D./M.B.A. program within five years. The packaging of students’ financial aid will be handled by both the Law School Office of Financial Aid and the Hofstra University Student Financial Services office, depending on students’ course load. [-]